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End of Year Review #1
A student collected and recorded measurements of the amount of carbon monoxide in the air at the same location each day for one week. The data are shown in the table. The student concluded that the amount of carbon monoxide in the air increased and then decreased during the week. A source of error in the student's investigation is that the student failed to
a) identify the days of the week
b) identify the month
c) collect data at the same time each day
d) state the method of measurement
As shown in the diagram, an empty 1,000.-milliliter container has a mass of 250.0 grams. When filled with a liquid, the container and the liquid have a combined mass of 1,300. grams. What is the density of the liquid?
a) 1.00 g/mL
b) 1.05 g/mL
c) 1.30 g/mL
d) 0.95 g/mL
The diagram shows equal masses of four different earth materials at different temperatures. Which material has the greatest density?
d) dry air
The diagrams represent fossils found at different locations. When classified by similarity of structure, which three fossils should be grouped together?
a) A, F, and H
b) C, F, and J
c) E, G, and H
d) B, D, and I
The graph shows the changes in height of ocean water over the course of two days at one Earth location. Which statement concerning these changes is best supported by the graph?
a) The changes are cyclic and occur at predictable time intervals
b) The changes are cyclic and occur at the same time every day
c) The changes are noncyclic and occur at sunrise and sunset
d) The changes are noncyclic and may occur at any time
The diagram shows observations of the star Polaris. What is the latitude of point A in the diagram?
a) 8º N
b) 41º N
c) 49º N
d) 59º N
The diagram represents Earth at a specific position in its orbit. Arrows indicate radiation from the Sun. Points A through D are locations on Earth's surface. As an observer travels from position B to position D, the altitude of Polaris in the nighttime sky will
a) decrease, only
b) increase, only
c) increase, then decrease
d) remain the same
The diagram shows part of the orbit of a satellite around the Earth. The distance from the satellite's orbit to the Earth's surface is 75 kilometers. In which portion of the Earth's atmosphere is the satellite located?
Solar time is based on the position of the Sun. If the solar time is 1 p.m. at location X, at which location is the solar time 5 p.m.?
In the diagram, the thermometer held 2 meters above the floor shows a temperature of 30°C. The thermometer on the floor shows a temperature of 24°C. What is the temperature gradient between the two thermometers?
The diagram represents the apparent daily path of the sun across the sky in the Northern Hemisphere on the dates indicated. At noon on which date would the observer cast the longest shadow?
a) June 21
b) September 23
c) March 21
d) December 21
The diagram represents eight positions of the Moon as it revolves around the Earth. When viewed from the Earth, which phase of the Moon will be seen when the Moon is at point E?
a) first quarter
b) full moon
c) new moon
d) last quarter
The diagram represents Earth at a specific position in its orbit. Arrows indicate radiation from the Sun. Points A through D are locations on Earth's surface. According to the diagram, during which month could Earth be in the position shown in the diagram?
The diagram represents a single light source directly over surface ab when in position 1. As the light is moved from position 1 to position 2, which is of equal distance form the surface, what will happen to the light intensity on the surface ab?
c) remain the same
d) increase, then decrease
The diagram shows a house located in the United States. Which diagram best represents the apparent path of the Sun on June 21 for this location?
Which type of energy is represented by the radiation at B?
b) visible light
c) ultraviolet rays
d) infrared energy
The diagram below shows temperature values at various points in a solid piece of aluminum. Toward which point will heat flow from point P?
At which location in the room will the density of the air be greatest?
The cross sections below show different patterns of air movement in Earth's atmosphere. Air temperatures at Earth's surface are indicated in each cross section. Which cross section shows the most likely pattern of air movement in Earth's atmosphere that would result from the surface air temperatures shown?
Which graph best illustrates the temperature changes on adjacent land and water surfaces as they are heated by the Sun from sunrise to noon on the same day?
Winds are blowing from high-pressure to low-pressure systems over identical ocean surfaces.Which diagram represents the area of greatest windspeed? [Arrows indicate wind direction.]
Adjacent land and ocean surfaces have the same temperature at sunrise on a clear, calm, summer day. Then the land and water are heated by the Sun for several hours. Which cross section shows the most likely direction of surface winds that will develop at this ocean shore?
Which station model represents an atmospheric pressure of 1,009.2 millibars and a temperature of 75ºF?
The map shows weather systems over the United States and weather station data for cities A, B, C, and D. Note that part of the weather data for city C and all of the weather data for city E are missing. The pressure field (isobars) on the map has been labeled in millibars. Which city is probably experiencing a slow, steady rain?
Which map correctly shows the wind directions of the high-pressure and low-pressure systems?
In the diagram of a mountain, locations A and B have the same elevation. Compared to the climate at location A, the climate at location B will be
a) warmer and drier
b) cooler and drier
c) warmer and wetter
d) cooler and wetter
Which graph best represents the relationship between soil permeability rate and infiltration when all other conditions are the same?
The graph represents the discharge of a stream at a location that has little temperature change throughout the year. Which local water budget variable best accounts for the peaks in the graph?
b) moisture deficit
c) actual evapotranspiration
d) potential evapotranspiration
The diagram represents an imaginary continent on Earth with surface locations A through E. An ocean surrounds the continent, and two mountain ranges are located as shown. At which location would the total yearly potential evapotranspiration be the greatest?
The map shows the general path of ocean currents in a portion of the Northern Hemisphere. Locations A, B, C, and D are at the shoreline. Which location most likely has the warmest climate?
The map shows the top view of a meandering stream as it enters a lake. At which points along the stream are erosion and deposition dominant?
a) Erosion is dominant at A and D, and deposition is dominant at B and C.
b) Erosion is dominant at B and C, and deposition is dominant at A and D.
c) Erosion is dominant at A and C, and deposition is dominant at B and D.
d) Erosion is dominant at B and D, and deposition is dominant at A and C.
To investigate the effects of abrasion on limestone rock chips, students placed rock chips of uniform size and shape in jars half-filled with water and shook them for different lengths of time. One rock chip was collected for each length of shaking time and these chips were arranged in a display. Which column shows the rock chips arranged from top to bottom in order of least to most shaking time?
Which graph best represents the relationship between stream erosion and the kinetic energy of a stream?
The diagram represents a vertical cross section of sediments deposited in a stream. Which statement best explains the mixture of sediments?
a) The velocity of the stream continually decreased.
b) The stream discharge continually decreased.
c) The particles have different densities.
d) Smaller particles settle more slowly than larger particles.
The diagram shows a surface and cross-sectional view of a portion of Earth 15 kilometers from a mountain range. The best explanation for the presence of an isolated boulder in this location is that the boulder was
a) eroded from a limestone cliff
b) transported there by a glacier
c) placed there by a volcanic eruption
d) deposited there by a slow-moving stream
The diagrams represent four rock samples. Which rock took the longest time to solidify from magma deep within the Earth?
The diagram represents a conglomerate rock. Some of the rock particles are labeled. Which conclusion is best made about the rock particles?
a) They are the same age.
b) They originated from a larger mass of igneous rock.
c) They all contain the same minerals.
d) They have different origins.
The diagram represents five rock samples. Which sample is composed of sediments 0.006 centimeter to 0.2 centimeter in size that were compacted and cemented together?
The diagram represents a rock with a distorted layer structure. The distorted structure of this rock is most likely the result of
a) a long period of weathering
b) glacial activity
c) wind erosion
d) extreme pressure
The diagram shows a cross section through a portion of Earth's crust. Rock found in the zone between A and B is nonfoliated and fine grained. This rock is most likely
The cross-sectional diagram of the Earth shows the paths of seismic waves from an earthquake. Letter X represents the location of a seismic station. Which statement best explains why station X received only P-waves?
a) S-waves traveled too slowly for seismographs to detect them.
b) Station X is too far from the focus for S-waves to reach.
c) A liquid zone within the Earth stops S-waves.
d) P-waves and S-waves are refracted by the Earth's core.
The diagrams below show patterns of convection currents under the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Many scientists believe that convection currents in the mantle between South America and Africa caused the separation of the two continents and the formation of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Which diagram best represents the currents described in this theory?
The map shows how the epicenter of an earthquake is located using observations at seisomograph stations 1, 2, and 3 in New York State. Station 4 is a seismograph station located in Canada. Using the seismic reading received at station 1 only, an observer would be able to determine
a) the distance of the epicenter from station 1 only
b) the direction of the epicenter from station 1 only
c) both the distance and the direction of the epicenter from station 1
d) neither the distance nor the direction of the epicenter from station 1
The diagrams below show cross sections of exposed bedrock. Which cross section shows the least evidence of crustal movement?
The map shows a portion of California along the San Andreas Fault zone. It shows the probability (percentage chance) that an earthquake strong enough to damage buildings and other structures will occur between now and the year 2024. Which diagram below best represents the relative movements of the crustal plates along the San Andreas Fault?
The diagram shows a cross-sectional view of part of the Earth's crust. What does the unconformity (buried erosional surface) at line XY represent?
a) an area of contact metamorphism.
b) a time gap in the rock record of the area.
c) proof that no deposition occurred between the Cambrian and Carboniferous rock layers
d) overturning of the Cambrian and Carboniferous rock layers
The diagram shows a cross section of the Earth's crust. Line XY is a fault. Which sequence of events, from oldest to youngest, has occurred in this outcrop?
a) sedimentary layers ---> igneous intrusion ---> folding ---> faulting
b) igneous intrusion ---> sedimentary layers ---> folding ---> faulting
c) igneous intrusion ---> faulting ---> sedimentary layers ---> folding
d) sedimentary layers ---> folding ---> igneous intrusion ---> faulting
The diagram represents the radioactive decay of uranium-238 (U238) and shows the percentages of uranium-238 and the stable element lead-206 (Pb206) after three half-lives. After three half-lives, how much of the original sample of uranium-238 remains?
The diagram represents the radioactive decay of uranium-238 (U238) and shows the percentages of uranium-238 and the stable element lead-206 (Pb206) after three half-lives. The graphs show possible relationships between U238 and Pb206. Which graph best shows the changing amounts of U238 and Pb206 in a radioactive rock sample?
The diagram shows a geologic section of a portion of Earth's crust consisting of various sedimentary and non-sedimentary rock units, represented by letters A through H, which have not been overturned. Line I-II is a fault. What is the age sequence of the rock units, from oldest to youngest?
a) E, F, G, H
b) H, G, E, F
c) G, H, F, E
d) F, E, G, H
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