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Chemical weathering occurs most rapidly in climates which are
a) moist and warm
b) moist and cold
c) dry and cold
d) dry and warm
Which material could best be carried in solution by a stream?
Rounded-bottom valleys with almost vertical sides, small ridges made of
unsorted sediments, and exposed bedrock with small, parallel groves were almost certainly formed by
a) extensive glaciation
b) volcanoes and lava flows
c) earthquakes and associated faulting
d) flooding followed by periods of wind erosion
The diagram represents blocks of limestone. Which block will weather at the fastest rate?
What conditions must occur in order for rocks to weather?
a) The rocks must be composed of silicate materials
b) The rocks must be moved by erosion
c) The rocks must be deeply buried in the earth
d) The rocks must be exposed to air or water
At high elevations in New York State, which is the most common form of physical weathering?
a) Abrasion of rocks by the wind
b) Dissolving of minerals into solution
c) Alternate freezing and melting of water
d) Oxidation of minerals by exposure to atmospheric oxygen
Very small solid sediments (colloids) are carried by a stream
a) by floatation
b) in suspension
c) in solution
d) by rolling
The most important result of the weathering of rock as far as living things are concerned is the
a) leaching of minerals from rocks
b) release of oxygen by frost action
c) formation of soil
d) erosion which results
At which locations will the rate of erosion be greatest?
a) A and C
b) B and C
c) A and D
d) E and F
A sample of a sedimentary deposit is found to contain coarse rock fragments at the bottom and fine particles at the top. The deposition most likely occurred as a result of
a) dropping directly from a glacier
b) a decrease in the velocity of a stream
c) an avalanche on a mountainside
d) dropping of weathered rock fragments from a cliff
Directly or indirectly, the cause of most erosion is
c) the earth's rotation
Which rock material in the diagram is most resistant to weathering?
Why does one gram of finely ground salt dissolve more rapidly in water than an equal mass of coarsely ground salt?
a) Grinding changes the chemical composition of the salt
b) Finely ground salt is less dense than coarsely ground salt
c) More surface area is exposed in finely ground salt
d) The solubility of the salt is proportional to the mass of the salt
Which is the best example of physical weathering?
a) The transportation of sediments by a stream
b) The cracking of rock caused by the freezing and thawing of water
c) The effect of acid rainwater on limestone
d) The formation of a sandbar along the side of a stream
As the kinetic energy of a stream increases, the size of the particles that can be transported by that stream
c) remains the same
The two most important factors responsible for the velocity of a stream are it's slope and
b) type of underlying rock
c) volume of water
d) water temperature
Which graph correctly shows the relationship between stream discharge and stream velocity?
What is the main difference between chemical and physical weathering?
a) Chemical weathering alters mineral composition. Physical processes don't
b) Chemical weathering increases surface area. Physical processes do not
c) Physical weathering alters mineral composition. Chemical processes don't
d) Physical weathering increases surface area. Chemical processes do not
Which agent of erosion probably contributes most to the general wearing down of the earth's surface?
b) Running water
c) Ocean waves
Which rock has probably been exposed to the longest period of stream abrasion?
At which location would the smallest particles be deposited?
Which rock material was probably transported to its present location by a glacier?
a) Rounded sand grains found in a river delta
b) Rounded grains found in a sand dune
c) Grains found in a layer of stratified soil
d) Unsorted, loose gravel found in hills
The rate at which particles are deposited by a stream is least effected by
a) The size and shape of the particles
b) The velocity of the stream
c) The stream's elevation above sea level
d) The density of the particles
Which pair of temperature and rainfall conditions would tend to promote the most intense weathering of a rock
a) Low temperature and low rainfall
b) Low temperature and high rainfall
c) High temperature and low rainfall
d) High temperature and high rainfall
Large caves in limestone rock are produced when carbon dioxide dissolves in water to produce
c) Calcium carbonate
d) Carbonic acid
Diagram 1 shows the water velocity at the surface of a stream. Diagram 2 shows the water velocity at different depths in the same stream. At which location is the water velocity greatest?
a) At the surface in the middle of the stream
b) At the surface near the bottom of the stream
c) Along the sides at the surface of the stream
d) Along the sides near the bottom of the stream
According to the Earth Science Reference Tables, particles with a diameter of 0.002 cm. should be classified as
According to the Earth Science Reference Tables, a stream velocity of 100 cm./sec is sufficient to transport
a) Cobbles, pebbles and sand
b) Boulders, cobbles and pebbles
c) Cobbles, pebbles, sand and silt
d) Pebbles, sand, silt and clay
According to the Earth Science Reference Tables, what is the minimum stream velocity needed to maintain the movement of boulders (diameter 25.6 cm.)?
a) 100 cm/sec
b) 200 cm/sec
c) 300 cm/sec
d) 400 cm/sec
Wide, U-shaped valleys are most closely associated with erosion by
Which graph correctly shows the relationship between the months of the year and the rate of chemical weathering for a location in New York State?
A hilly region on Long Island is composed of unconsolidated and unsorted sediments. Which erosional agent was probably most influential in forming this landscape?
a) Wave action
If a sediment is only partly rounded and has large scratches, it was most likely transported by
A farmer who leaves the soil barren of vegetation will probably increase the amount of
b) Physical weathering
d) Chemical weathering
Which of these sediments would you expect to find in the greatest quantity far out into the ocean because of suspension of sediments?
The sediment depicted in the diagram was most probably deposited by
b) A stream
Angular rock fragments at the bottom of a cliff were probably transported by
Large solid sediments such as pebbles are most often carried by a stream
a) In solution
b) By rolling
c) In suspension
d) By floating
The diagram represents a section of sediment ranging from large pebbles on the bottom to fine sand at the top. This sediment was most likely deposited by
a) A glacier
b) A stream
d) Particles falling directly from a cliff
Soil forms layers called
The chemical composition of a residual soil in a certain area is determined by the
a) Method by which the soil was transported to the area.
b) Slope of the land and the particle size of the soil
c) Length of time since the last crustal movement in the area occurred.
d) Minerals in the bedrock beneath the soil and the climate of the area
As the grain size of suspended material increases, the rate of settling
c) Remains the same
The velocity of a stream is 100 cm/sec. According to the Earth Science Reference Tables, what is the largest diameter particle that can be transported by this stream?
a) 1.0 cm
b) 0.1 cm
c) 0.01 cm
d) 0.001 cm
Which is indicated by a deeper residual soil?
a) Resistant bedrock
b) A large amount of glaciation
c) A long period of weathering
d) A youthful stage of erosion
Which rock layer is most resistant to weathering?
What would happen to the lansdcape pictured in the diagram if the climate became more humid?
a) The elevation of the region would increase
b) The landscape features would become more rounded
c) Stream channels would fill with sediment
d) U-shaped valleys would form
In which zone would particles with a size range of 0.05 cm to 0.10 cm be found?
a) Zone A
b) Zone B
c) Zone C
d) Zone D
If the stream discharge between points X and Y increased, the most likely result would be
a) A decrease in the amount of erosion
b) A decrease in the average stream velocity
c) An increase in the deposition of sediments between X and Y
d) An increase in the particle size if sediments entering the ocean
If point X were uplifted, the potential energy of the stream at point X would
c) Remain the same
The diagram represents a vertical cross section of sediments deposited by a stream. Which statement best explains the mixture of sediments?
a) The velocity of the stream continually decreased.
b) The stream discharge continuall decreased.
c) The particles have different densities.
d) Smaller particles settle more slowly than larger particles.
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