1. Rock 'A' was formed during the Mississippian Epoch and rests upon rock 'B' which rests upon rock 'C' which was formed during the Silurian Period. If rock `B' is neither Mississippian nor Silurian, during what time period did it form?

2. Rock layers from which of the following Periods would not be found in New York State?

3. According to the Earth Science Reference Tables, which radioactive element, formed at the time of the Earth's origin, has just reached about one half-life?

4. Which of the rock formations in the diagram is the youngest?

5. The best method for the correlation of sedimentary rock layers several hundred kilometers apart is by comparing the

6. A log is found incorporated in a sequence of layered sediments at the bottom of a lake. Which method would most accurately locate the time period when the tree was living?

7. The decay curves of 4 radioactive elements are shown on the graph. Which curve represents the element with the shortest half-life?

8. The chief reason why it is difficult to correlate pre-paleozoic rocks, such as those on the Canadian Shield, is that

9. The best basis for concluding that a certain layer of shale rock in New York State was deposited at the same time as one in California is that

10. An unconformity exists between which two rock layers?

11. The half-life of a particular radioactive substance

12. According to the Referance Tables, near which community in New York State would you be least likely to find fossils?

13. Which statement about dinosaurs is supported by information provided in the Reference Tables?

14. The physical and chemical conditions which long ago produced changes on the Earth's surface are still producing changes today. This statement is one way of stating the principle of

15. During which time period was the majority of exposed bedrock in New York State deposited?

16. How are ancient volcanic ash deposits important to geologists.

17. Unless a series of sedimentary rock layers is overturned, the bottom rock layer usually

18. Which of the following is the correct sequence of rock layers from oldest to youngest?

19. Which of the following statements is true of half-life?

20. Why is carbon-14 not usually used to accurately date objects more than 50,000years old?

21. In a certain section of sedimentary rock, fossil dating shows that younger rock layers are on top of older rock layers. This relationship indicates that

22. A geologist uses carbon-14 to measure the age of material found in a sedimentary deposit. If the half-life of carbon-14 is 5,700 years and the sample shows that only 25% of the original carbon-14 is left, the age of the sample is

23. Which is the correct sequence of events for this location?

24. The fossil remains of organisms which were once common and widespread but which survived only during a short period of geologic time might be especially useful for

25. According to the Reference Tables, as one travels eastward from the Tug Hill Plateau into the Adirondack Mountains, the age of the rocks changes from

26. Rock layer M is Devonian sandstone. Rock layer B is Ordovician siltstone. In which geologic period may rock layer F have been deposited?

27. A simple, direct method of correlating rocks of one outcrop is to

28. If a specimen of a given radioactive substance is heated to 500 degrees C, its half-life

29. According to the Reference Tables, between which two cities in New York State would the oldest surface bedrock be found?

30. Which of the following statements about the geologic cross-section is correct?

31. According to the Geologic Time Scale in the Reference Tables, what is the estimated age of the Earth as a planet in millions of years?

32. A timeline is made on a strip of paper to illustrate the Earth's history. A length of 1.0 centimeter is used to represent 10 million years. According to the Reference Tables, what distance should be used to represent the Mesozoic Era?

33. Which two forms of life existed together on the Earth during the same time period

34. For which period of geologic history is there no rock record in New York State?

35. A scientist wishes to search for fossils of the earliest amphibians. Near which city in New York State should she search?

36. The fossil record indicates that most of the plants and animals that lived on Earth in the past

37. A rock sample contained 8 grams of potassium-40 when it was formed but now contains only 4 grams due to radioactive decay. Based on the Reference Tables, what is the approximate age of this rock?

38. Geologic history is divided into units on the basis of

39. The fossil record provides evidence that primitive humans were alive on Earth at the same time as the

40. Which fossils could be found in Silurian limestone?

41. According to the Earth Science Reference Tables, dinosaur footprints may be preserved in Triassic and Jurassic rock. In which section of New York State would these footprints most likely be found?

42. Index fossils are useful for correlating rocks because the fossils

43. What caused the Acadian Orogeny?

44. What kind of fossils might be found in the rocks of the Tug Hill Plateau?

45. At which New York State city is the oldest bedrock located?

46. In which rock layer would fossils least likely be found?

47. During which period of New York State geohistory did rifting occur?

48. A paleontologist discovers a rock layer containing brachiopod index fossil 'Y'. What other fossils might be found in this rock layer?

49. A geologist uses carbon14 to date a sample. He find that the sample contains C14 to N14 in the ratio of 1:7. What is the age of the sample?

50. A geologist is studying the bedrock at 43 degrees 30 minutes north, 75 degrees, 45 minutes west. What kind of fossils should she expect to find at this location?

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