Flashcards: Water&Climate


The amount of empty space in a rock or a sample of soil
The amount of water flowing in a river or stream per unit of time. Example: gallons/hour or cubic meters/minute
How water vapor enters the atmosphere
The tendency of water to move upward through very tiny spaces
The ability of a rock or soil to allow water to pass through it
The interface between the zone of aeration and the zone of saturation
All the particles are the same size
Hydrologic cycle
The long-term view of the weather of a region
Water that stays in the surface (does not infiltrate)
To seep down into the ground
The water found in the pore spaces of rock or soil
The area of the soil in which the pore spaces are filled with air
The area of rock or soil in which the pore spaces are filled with water
A soil consisting of particles of mixed sizes
Water evaporating from the leaves of plants
The clinging of water to the surface of soil particles
This increases as soil particle size decreases (4 possible answers)
This increases as soil particle size increases
This does not change regardless of particle size as long as the soil is sorted
This is LEAST in an unsorted soil
How climates are classified
Potential Evapotranspiration (Ep)
No ground water and not enough precipitation
Season of greatest Ep
How much water actually enters the atmosphere from a region
Any of these factors cause a decrease in Ep
Winds that blow in a particular direction MOST of the time
Rainy, cool side of a mountain
Where deserts are likely to be found
These factors cause increased runoff
Two things that can be done to increase permeability (and reduce run off) are
This tends to eliminate extremes of temperature for a region
Latitudes where most deserts are found
This drives surface ocean currents
Amount of water in the ground
Removal of water from the ground especially by pumping
Returning water to the ground
Man-made ponds intended to collect runoff and allow it to infiltrate back into the ground
A porous and permeable layer of rock or soil containing water
This is least in unsorted soils
This decreases porosity (and permeability) by forcing soil particles closer together
Stream discharge
By Evapotranspiration
Water table
Sorted (soils)
Water cycle
Infiltrate (aka seep)
Ground water
Zone of aeration
Zone of saturation
Water retained (retention)
Capillarity, Surface area, Time needed for infiltration, Water retention
RATE (not time) of infiltration
Porosity (always about 43-46% in sorted soils)
Precipitation/Potential Evapotranspiration (P/Ep ratio)
How much water COULD evaporate and transpire (Depends on TEMPERATURE which depends on INSOLATION)
The ground is full of water - All pore spaces are full - Water table has risen to the surface
Too much water - Ground is saturated and excess water is runoff
Summer (Ep depends on TEMPERATURE)
Ea (actual evapotranspiration)
All of these decrease Ep by lowering TEMPERATURE: An increase in latitude, cloud cover, or elevation. Winter. Being near a cold ocean current.
Prevailing winds
Windward side
At the base on the leeward side of mountains (in the rainshadow)
Steep slopes, low permeability (area paved), ground frozen,
Don't pave over soils AND plant vegetation.
Nearness to a large body of water (ocean or lake). Winters aren't as cold. Summers aren't as hot.
30 N and S of the equator
Sumps or catch basins
Porosity (usually around 20-25%)
PACKING as occurs when heavy trucks run over soils